«What is Groove, Yaron Gershovsky?» Lessons in Organizational Development from Jazz

This post is an adapted an extended version of the paper “Twelve-Tone Music Reloaded”: 12 Lessons in Rotating Leadership and Organizational Development from Jazz by Daniel C. Schmid and Peter A. Gloor, MIT, and founder of galaxyadvisors.com.

Recently, Jazz improvisation has become a part of the “Holy grail” in Organizational Development, above all under so-called VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity) conditions. Effective leadership of the future will be based on relationship building, understanding complex group work, and diverse workforces. For future leaders, it will be key to gain a deeper understanding of the constantly evolving complexities of interpersonal, group and even intergroup relationships.

This article illustrates the core principle of COINs (Collaborative Innovation Network) of rotating leadership by the example of Jazz musicians, who take turns grooving together. These musicians are exemplars of team members seamlessly transferring the leadership role from one to the other, leading to a “flow” experience of superb quality for their audience. As we show, so-called “honest signals” from Jazz can play a key role for organizational development to create an “organizational groove”.

While COINs form when people from many different backgrounds, countries, and cultures get together to innovate towards a shared goal, Jazz musicians are special members of COINs, as they already share the same context to a large extent, and thus do not have to spend long hours to build a shared language and understanding. Also, COINs frequently collaborate over long distance using the Internet to form virtual teams, while Jazz bands normally share the same stage. Therefore, Jazz bands are “elite” COINs, sharing a privileged environment that “ordinary” COINs do not have. They thus are idealized role models and exemplars illustrating the key tenets that COINs using virtual collaboration techniques should look for to gain inspiration and deep insights.

“Your turn, Yaron!”

When I asked Yaron Gershovsky, musical conductor of the legendary American Vocal Quartet The Manhattan Transfer, during their latest European Tour in fall 2018, “how can you describe groove and are there “honest signals” of the audience that can be predicted?”, the internationally renowned pianist described it as follows:

Yaron Gershovsky, The Manhattan Transfer, JazzNoJazz Festival Zurich, 31 October 2018.

“Playing for an audience of 10 people or a thousand people has very many similarities. I view an audience as one being, may it be large or small. They all feel and respond as one to what they hear. They all can sense the player’s feelings. They sense the inspiration and they also sense the nervousness and insecurity if it exists. When soloing, you always look for this instance when you know that you “got” them. You grabbed their attention and they all are with you for the ride. It’s a great feeling! Like a “Runner’s High” … you could call it the “Player’s High”… This last European tour took me from Slovakia to Finland, from Sweden to Switzerland … the audience’s behavior was similar. It sensed my feelings and responded to them. Great experience!” (Yaron Gershovsky)

Imagine how ordinary listeners—and not only “Jazz aficionados”—can recog­nize Jazz standards by just focusing on different parameters: well-known melody-based tunes like “Girl from Ipanema” by Antonio Carlos Jobim differ a lot from standards with complex harmonic structures such as John Coltrane’s “Countdown” or Dave Brubeck’s “Take 5”, which achieved iconographic status with its 5/4 beat. The main issue is that the formal development of Jazz never can by predicted, as Thelonious Monk wisely mentioned a long time ago: “I don’t know where it’s going. Maybe it’s going to hell. You can’t make anything go anywhere. It just happens.” (Chinen 2018).

Transferring Ed Schein’s Iceberg Model

What about the idea of transferring this Jazz metaphor into an agile organizational design structure: Can this make sense at all, if Jazz itself is not predictable? In order to delve deeper into a corporate’s DNA, we propose to adapt Edgar H. Schein’s “Culture Model” to Jazz by aligning the three main musical components “melody”, “harmony”, and “beat” to his concept of surface and deep structure. Assuming that a Jazz tune always consists of these three fundamental layers, we suggest an agile organizational design that corresponds with the basic structures of a Jazz standard:

Fig. 1: Edgar H. Schein’s Iceberg Model transferred to Jazz

The screening of an organization can be tackled in an “outside-in” mode, such as moving from “surface” to “deep structure” in Ed Schein’s approach. He differentiates between “artifacts and symbols” (= “melody”: what can be heard at the drop of a hat), “espoused values” (= “harmony”: which requires careful listening to structures), and “assumptions” (= “beat”: the basic clock pulse of an organization). In the ideal world of jazz, these three factors come together and create this “flow” with the audience that Yaron Gershovsky has described above. What about the economic reality of organizations and their stakeholders?

Designing the “Organizational Groove”

We therefore propose that understanding the “DNA code” of an organization requires to identify all existing honest signals within a company. By using the “happimeter sensing system” which allows users to predict their mood through body signals with smartwatches (Gloor 2018) we aim to initiate a debate about combining “digital” and “analogue” signals to fully detect a corporation’s DNA. Aligning the three Jazz layers “melody” (= communication content), “harmony” (= structure and processes), and “beat” (lifecycle of a company) can be key to analyzing the different patterns within various organizations. In order to create a “corporate groove”, our goal is to take the next steps towards a theory of “organizational flow” to measure intrinsic organizational “groove”. This rollout may be supported by the happyimeter technology that can be deployed in an entire global corporation:

Fig. 2: Organizational Groove Design with Happimeter technology

Our goal is to take the next steps towards a theory of “organizational flow” in order to measure intrinsic organizational “groove” with sociometric badges (Gloor et al. 2013) and other devices that measure human emotions such as the new happimeter technology (Gloor et al. 2018). Thus, we get the perfect quantitative conditions to start measuring the growth of a company. In other words: “Organizational flow” is where the groove of an organization starts becoming effective!

References

  1. Adorno, T.W. Über Jazz, Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung, Volume 5 (1936), pp 235–259 (article in German)
  2. Barrett, F. Yes to the Mess. Surprising Leadership Lessons from Jazz, Harvard Business Review Press, Boston 2012
  3. Berendt, J.E. Adorno, T.W. Für und wider den Jazz, Merkur, Volume 7, Issue 67 (September 1953), pp 887–893 (article in German)
  4. Berendt, J.E. Ich höre, also bin ich, in Vogel, T. (Ed), Über das Hören: Einem Phänomen auf der Spur, Attempto, Tübingen 1998, pp. 69–70 (article in German)
  5. Burow, O. How Organizations Become Creative Fields: The Jazz Band Model of Leadership and the Role of Improvisation, Zeitschrift für Supervision, Volume 2 (2004), pp 1–21 (article in German)
  6. Butterfield, M.W. Why Do Jazz Musicians Swing Their Eighth Notes? Music Theory Spectrum, Volume 33, Issue 1 (April 2011), pp 3–26
  7. Chinen, N. Playing Changes. Jazz for the New Century, Pantheon Books, New York 2018
  8. De Pree, M. Leadership Jazz, Doubleday, New York 2008 (2nd ed.)
  9. Fatzer, G. Van Maanen, J. Schmid, D.C. Weber W. (Eds.). Edgar H. Schein. The Spirit of Inquiry, Innsbruck University Press, Innsbruck 2019 (on print)
  10. Gloor, P. Colladon, A.F. Grippa, F. Budner, P. & Eirich, J. Aristotle Said “Happiness is a State of Activity”—Predicting Mood Through Body Sensing with Smartwatches. Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, 27(5), 586–612, 2018
  11. Gloor, P. Oster, D. Fischbach, K. JazzFlow – Analyzing “Group Flow” Among Jazz Musicians Through “Honest Signals” KI – Artificial Intelligence, February 2013, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 37–43
  12. Hodson, R. Interaction, Improvisation, and Interplay in Jazz, Routledge, New York/London 2007
  13. Johansen, R., Leaders Make the Future. Ten New Leadership Skills for an Uncertain World, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Oakland 2012 (2nd ed.)
  14. Kamoche, K. Pina e Cunha M., Vieira da Cunha J. Towards a Theory of Organizational Improvisation: Looking Beyond the Jazz Metaphor, Journal of Management Studies, Volume 40, Issue 8 (December 2003), 0022–2380
  15. Kidane, Y. Gloor, P. Correlating Temporal Communication Patterns of the Eclipse Open Source Community with Performance and Creativity, Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory. Volume 13, Issue 1 (March 2007), 17–27, 2007
  16. Lewin, K. Resolving Social Conflicts, and Field Theory in Social Science, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC 1997 (Reprint. Original Harper and Row, New York 1948)
  17. Lewis, R. When Cultures Collide. Leading Across Cultures, Nicholas Brealey International, London/Boston 2018 (4th ed.)
  18. Nemoto, K. Gloor, P. Laubacher, R. Social Capital Increases Efficiency of Collaboration among Wikipedia Editors, ACM Hypertext 2011: 22nd ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia, Eindhoven, NL, June 6–9, 2011
  19. Scharmer, O. Theory U: Learning from the Future as It Emerges. The Social Technology of Presencing, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Oakland 2016
  20. Scharmer, O. The Essentials of Theory U: Core Principles and Applications, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Oakland 2018
  21. Schein, E. Schein P., Organizational Culture and Leadership, Wiley, Hoboken 2017 (5th ed.)
  22. Schein, E. Schein P., Humble Leadership: The Power of Relationships, Openness, and Trust, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Oakland 2018
  23. Schmid, D.C. Gloor, P. (2018) “Twelve-Tone Music Reloaded”: 12 Lessons in Rotating Leadership and Organizational Development from Jazz Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs), Suzhou, China, Sept 26–28, 2018

Edgar H. Schein: «The Spirit of Inquiry»

Ed Schein together with his mother, Hildegard, and his father, Marcel Schein, ca. 1936. Photograph courtesy of Edgar H. Schein.

This work presents a collection of original essays composed by friends and ­colleagues of Edgar H. Schein. Each of the fifteen essays in its own way honors Ed’s invigorating and path breaking contributions – over six decades – to several scholarly and applied fields in the social sciences. To those familiar with the sweep of Ed Schein’s work, this collection serves as a testimony to its continuing relevance and usefulness. To those unfamiliar with all or parts of the work, this collection will serve as a crisp but helpful introduction.

But, what I will most treasure from this extraordinary experience was less the ideas than the complex weave of ideas and personas. (…). I will refrain from continuing to empty the lesson inventory from which they are drawn and end with a simple deep bow and “Thank You” to a genuine teacher.

Peter Senge, Senior Lecturer, Leadership and Sustainability, MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge MA; Academy for Systems Change, Norwich Vermont.

This book was put together as a labor of love. The original idea was born by Daniel C. Schmid and Gerhard Fatzer at the 2017 Conference of Trias and at HWZ University of Applied Sciences in Business Administration Zurich. The Spiritus Rector or Master Editor was John Van Maanen with his unique network. The work presents a set of essays cobbled together by friends and colleagues of Edgar H. Schein’s to honor his invigorating and path breaking contributions over six decades to a number of scholarly and applied fields in the social sciences. It is also something of a belated but collective present for Ed on his 90th birthday.

Edgar H. Schein about «Humble Leadership»: Conference of Trias and HWZ University of Applied Sciences in Business Administration Zurich, 23 Mai 2017.

As editors of this work, we asked a set of people who had worked closely with Ed at various stages of his long and continuing career to inscribe what they felt were the lessons they have learned from him as well as what they consider to be his major contributions to their respective fields. We have fifteen essays drawn from a variety of authors, some who emphasize the theoretical and research side of Ed’s work, some who emphasize the developmental and practical side the work, and some who pay attention to both sides since each side informs the other.


Edgar H. Schein – The Spirit of Inquiry
Gerhard Fatzer, John Van Maanen, Daniel C. Schmid, Wolfgang G. Weber (Eds.)
ISBN 978-3-903187-39-9

The fifteen essays could easily have been multiplied many times over for Ed’s spheres of influence and acquaintances are extensive (and still expansive). His influence is not strictly bound by discipline nor geography. His work weaves various threads drawn from psychology, sociology, anthroology and attracts interest from North America to Europe to Asia. We have tried to be representative of Ed’s diverse concerns in selecting contributors to this collection but, of necessity, spare in asking for papers. Not surprisingly, we met with success when soliciting commentary. All the contributors were enthusiastic and eager to write and delivered on a relatively tight editorial schedule.

The contributors are roughly divided – with some overlap – into four groupings: Colleagues, coworkers with Ed, in the Organization Studies Group at MIT and associates of Ed who worked with him at MIT outside the group in the areas of organizational change and development; former students of his in the Organization Studies Group; two contributors who know well Ed’s fascinating family history, including his son; and three long-time friends of Ed from Europe. The essays from each contributor detail areas of admiration and influence that differ slightly from one another but do come together to offer a rather full portrait of Ed’s special and skilled artistry, a blend of the humanities and social sciences.

To briefly introduce the sections of this collection of appreciative writings, the first section has essays by Lotte Bailyn and John Van Maanen, colleagues in the Organization Studies Group, that focus more or less on the scholarly side of Ed’s work and their lengthy shared history at MIT. This section also includes essays by Peter Senge and Otto Scharmer, associates of Ed’s at MIT but members of different groups in the Sloan School. The latter two essays focus on more on Ed’s applied, helping side and deal closely with his role as an exemplary teacher or, as a label Ed might prefer, a respected coach.

Ed Schein, the humble educator, has developed, articulated, honed, and passed on these deeper principles to a global community of action researchers and reflective practitioners. (…) With a deep bow to a teacher who – more than any other teacher I have ever met – embodies every single principle that he espouses in his own actions and way of being.

C. Otto Scharmer, Senior Lecturer, Leadership and Sustainability, MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge MA; Presencing Institute, Cambridge, MA.

The second section features six contributions by former students of Ed’s in the Organization Studies Group who have gone on to have rather notable research and teaching careers of their own: Steve Barley, Gibb Dyer, Gideon Kunda, Deborah Dougherty, Nitin Nohria and Jane Salk. All were doctoral students in the 1980s and, while matriculating in different years, were part of what might be thought of now – although at the time unrecognized – as a small but “hot group” which included the faculty as well. It was quite democratic. Everybody, including grad students were in on the act. There were status differences to be sure but all could speak up and partake in debate. Multiple authorship was common. To some degree, those engaged saw the little group as something of an embattled enclave – both within the Sloan School and MIT at large vis-à-vis the prestigious, quantitatively oriented groups – like economics – that dominated the local pecking order and, externally, in contrast to the traditional “organizational behavior” groups at other larger (and regarded as misguided or dumber) institutions.

The third section consists of two selections. The first offers a quick history of the peripatetic but close knit family life Ed experienced when he was young. As told by Daniel C. Schmid, our man from Zurich grew up in several academic environments far from Cambridge, Massachusetts, during the run up to World War II which was, to say the least, an intense and dangerous moment in time. The second selection is a warm and unique depiction of Ed as both a father and an unintentional futurist written by his son and sometimes co-author Peter A. Schein. Both broaden our view of Ed Schein by portraying his life and times beyond the often-cloistered confines of the academy.

The fourth and last section of the volume presents essays written by European friends of Ed Schein: Gerhard Fatzer, Sabina Schoefer, and Wolfgang G. Weber. Gerhard’s essay takes up his original encounters with Ed Schein in the early 1980s at MIT and traces their evolving relationship over the years. Sabine Schoefer, along with Sylvia Boecker and Gerhard Fatzer, was instrumental in introducing Ed Schein to the German speaking public through his translated books and through six Trias Conferences held in Ed’s birthplace of Zurich. Sabine’s essay present what she calls a “vital toolkit for the development of organizations” that draws on many of Ed’s writings. Wolfgang’s contribution is to compare Ed’s work on dialogue and discourse with some prominent European theorists such as Juergen Habermas.

The volume concludes with a selected list of Ed’s publications. A complete listing would have amounted to well over 200 cites so we have made some editorial deletions – cutting out those one-off publications such as compressed interviews, abridged special interest publications, some brief forwards to other works, short reviews, and summaries of previously published works. We have however highlighted – denoted in the manuscript in bold letters – those books Ed himself considers his most vital and meaningful. And, as is apparent from the testimony given here, it is a body of work that has maintained its relevance and usefulness to a multitude of readers over the demanding test of time.

Order the book here: Amazon or innsbruck university press

«Time-Span» and the «Midlife Crisis» of Organizations

Time-Span

Have you ever heard of Elliott Jaques? If you haven’t, don’t worry, because hardly anyone knows him. But for sure, you know the term «Midlife Crisis», don’t you? Guess now, who has coined the phrase? Bingo!
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